# Learnings about CodeType#

I wanted to start collecting my learning about the code object, as I created this library. Unfortunately, I had this idea after I was mostly done, so it is by no means complete.

## co_varnames#

This is the list of local variables names. It is accessed in the evaluation loop by LOAD_FAST, DELETE_FAST, and STORE_FAST.

### Are all the co_varnames used by these operations? Or is it important to save unused co_varnames so they get copied to the frame and used in some other way?#

Not every co_varname is used. Most codes actually included unused varnames!

This is because these are used for the function arguments. It also includes the local variables… Weird they are put in the same one!

We cannot eliminate unused ones. That is actually enforced during bytecode creation, to make sure we have enough co_varnames for the args.

### Are all co_varnames after the argument names used in the code?#

Mostly yes. The only place they don’t get used is if they are optimized away, like in a if False: ... block. So we can safely remove all the unused varnames, which are not arguments.

### Are all the code with arguments “functions”? i.e. do they have the NEWLOCALS and OPTIMIZED flags?#

Yes all code data with args are functions!

## co_freevars and co_cellvars#

If we look in dis we see that any of the “hasfree” commands will index into cell_names = co.co_cellvars + co.co_freevars.

The ones marked as using it are:

• LOAD_CLOSURE

• LOAD_DEREF

• STORE_DEREF

• DELETE_DEREF

• LOAD_CLASSDEREF

Let’s take a look at ceval.c to see where they are used.

LOAD_CLASSDEREF is the clearest, in that it requires the arg to index into co_freevars and be larger than co_cellvars.

The rest all index into freevars directly, which is defined as f->f_localsplus + co->co_nlocals.

This f_localsplus contains both the varnames locals plus the cells and freevars. And since nlocals == len(varnames), this offsets the array to start looking at the cellvars and freevars. This is created in PyFrame_FastToLocalsWithError in frameobject.c.